Nebraska Uniform Commercial Code 4A-501
- Uniform Commercial Code
Variation by agreement and effect of funds-transfer system rule.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this article, the rights and obligations of a party to a funds transfer may be varied by agreement of the affected party.
(b) "Funds-transfer system rule" means a rule of an association of banks (i) governing transmission of payment orders by means of a funds-transfer system of the association or rights and obligations with respect to those orders, or (ii) to the extent the rule governs rights and obligations between banks that are parties to a funds transfer in which a federal reserve bank, acting as an intermediary bank, sends a payment order to the beneficiary's bank. Except as otherwise provided in this article, a funds-transfer system rule governing rights and obligations between participating banks using the system may be effective even if the rule conflicts with this article and indirectly affects another party to the funds transfer who does not consent to the rule. A funds-transfer system rule may also govern rights and obligations of parties other than participating banks using the system to the extent stated in sections 4A-404(c), 4A-405(d), and 4A-507(c).
- Laws 1991, LB 160, § 33.
1. This section is designed to give some flexibility to article 4A. Funds-transfer system rules govern rights and obligations between banks that use the system. They may cover a wide variety of matters such as form and content of payment orders, security procedures, cancellation rights and procedures, indemnity rights, compensation rules for delays in completion of a funds transfer, time and method of settlement, credit restrictions with respect to senders of payment orders, and risk allocation with respect to suspension of payments by a participating bank. Funds-transfer system rules can be very effective in supplementing the provisions of article 4A and in filling gaps that may be present in article 4A. To the extent they do not conflict with article 4A there is no problem with respect to their effectiveness. In that case they merely supplement article 4A. Section 4A-501 goes further. It states that unless the contrary is stated, funds-transfer system rules can override provisions of article 4A. Thus, rights and obligations of a sender bank and a receiving bank with respect to each other can be different from that stated in article 4A to the extent a funds-transfer system rule applies. Since funds-transfer system rules are defined as those governing the relationship between participating banks, a rule can have a direct effect only on participating banks. But a rule that affects the conduct of a participating bank may indirectly affect the rights of nonparticipants such as the originator or beneficiary of a funds transfer, and such a rule can be effective even though it may affect nonparticipants without their consent. For example, a rule might prevent execution of a payment order or might allow cancellation of a payment order with the result that a funds transfer is not completed or is delayed. But a rule purporting to define rights and obligations of nonparticipants in the system would not be effective to alter article 4A rights because the rule is not within the definition of funds-transfer system rule. Rights and obligations arising under article 4A may also be varied by agreement of the affected parties, except to the extent article 4A otherwise provides. Rights and obligations arising under article 4A can also be changed by Federal Reserve regulations and operating circulars of Federal Reserve banks. Section 4A-107.
2. Subsection (b)(ii) refers to ACH transfers.
Whether an ACH transfer is made through an automated clearinghouse of a Federal Reserve bank or through an automated clearinghouse of another association of banks, the rights and obligations of the originator's bank and the beneficiary's bank are governed by uniform rules adopted by various associations of banks in various parts of the nation. With respect to transfers in which a Federal Reserve bank acts as intermediary bank these rules may be incorporated, in whole or in part, in operating circulars of the Federal Reserve bank. Even if not so incorporated these rules can still be binding on the association banks. If a transfer is made through a Federal Reserve bank, the rules are effective under subsection (b)(ii). If the transfer is not made through a Federal Reserve bank, the association rules are effective under subsection (b)(i).