Nebraska Uniform Commercial Code 4A-208

UCC 4A-208

4A-208.

Misdescription of intermediary bank or beneficiary's bank.

(a) This subsection applies to a payment order identifying an intermediary bank or the beneficiary's bank only by an identifying number.

(1) The receiving bank may rely on the number as the proper identification of the intermediary or beneficiary's bank and need not determine whether the number identifies a bank.

(2) The sender is obliged to compensate the receiving bank for any loss and expenses incurred by the receiving bank as a result of its reliance on the number in executing or attempting to execute the order.

(b) This subsection applies to a payment order identifying an intermediary bank or the beneficiary's bank both by name and an identifying number if the name and number identify different persons.

(1) If the sender is a bank, the receiving bank may rely on the number as the proper identification of the intermediary or beneficiary's bank if the receiving bank, when it executes the sender's order, does not know that the name and number identify different persons. The receiving bank need not determine whether the name and number refer to the same person or whether the number refers to a bank. The sender is obliged to compensate the receiving bank for any loss and expenses incurred by the receiving bank as a result of its reliance on the number in executing or attempting to execute the order.

(2) If the sender is not a bank and the receiving bank proves that the sender, before the payment order was accepted, had notice that the receiving bank might rely on the number as the proper identification of the intermediary or beneficiary's bank even if it identifies a person different from the bank identified by name, the rights and obligations of the sender and the receiving bank are governed by subsection (b)(1), as though the sender were a bank. Proof of notice may be made by any admissible evidence. The receiving bank satisfies the burden of proof if it proves that the sender, before the payment order was accepted, signed a writing stating the information to which the notice relates.

(3) Regardless of whether the sender is a bank, the receiving bank may rely on the name as the proper identification of the intermediary or beneficiary's bank if the receiving bank, at the time it executes the sender's order, does not know that the name and number identify different persons. The receiving bank need not determine whether the name and number refer to the same person.

(4) If the receiving bank knows that the name and number identify different persons, reliance on either the name or the number in executing the sender's payment order is a breach of the obligation stated in section 4A-302(a)(1).

Source

  • Laws 1991, LB 160, § 17.

Annotations

  • COMMENT

  • 1. This section addresses an issue similar to that addressed by section 4A-207. Because of automation in the processing of payment orders, a payment order may identify the beneficiary's bank or an intermediary bank by an identifying number. The bank identified by number might or might not also be identified by name. The following two cases illustrate section 4A-208(a) and (b):

  • Case #1. Originator's payment order to Originator's bank identifies the beneficiary's bank as Bank A and instructs payment to Account #12345 in that bank. Originator's bank executes Originator's order by issuing a payment order to Intermediary Bank. In the payment order of Originator's bank the beneficiary's bank is identified as Bank A but is also identified by number, #67890. The identifying number refers to Bank B rather than Bank A. If processing by Intermediary Bank of the payment order of Originator's bank is done by automated means, Intermediary Bank, in executing the order, will rely on the identifying number and will issue a payment order to Bank B rather than Bank A. If there is an Account #12345 in Bank B, the payment order of Intermediary Bank would normally be accepted and payment would be made to a person not intended by Originator. In this case, section 4A-208(b)(1) puts the risk of loss on Originator's bank. Intermediary Bank may rely on the number #67890 as the proper identification of the beneficiary's bank. Intermediary Bank has properly executed the payment order of Originator's bank. By using the wrong number to describe the beneficiary's bank, Originator's bank has improperly executed Originator's payment order because the payment order of Originator's bank provides for payment to the wrong beneficiary, the holder of Account #12345 in Bank B rather than the holder of Account #12345 in Bank A. Section 4A-302(a)(1) and section 4A-303(c). Originator's bank is not entitled to payment from Originator but is required to pay Intermediary Bank. Section 4A-303(c) and section 4A-402(c). Intermediary Bank is also entitled to compensation for any loss and expenses resulting from the error by Originator's bank.

  • If there is no Account #12345 in Bank B, the result is that there is no beneficiary of the payment order issued by Originator's bank and the funds transfer will not be completed. Originator's bank is not entitled to payment from Originator and Intermediary Bank is not entitled to payment from Originator's bank. Section 4A-402(c). Since Originator's bank improperly executed Originator's payment order it may be liable for damages under section 4A-305. As stated above, Intermediary Bank is entitled to compensation for loss and expenses resulting from the error by Originator's bank.

  • Case #2. Suppose the same payment order by Originator to Originator's bank as in Case #1. In executing the payment order Originator's bank issues a payment order to Intermediary Bank in which the beneficiary's bank is identified only by number, #67890. That number does not refer to Bank A. Rather, it identifies a person that is not a bank. If processing by Intermediary Bank of the payment order of Originator's bank is done by automated means, Intermediary Bank will rely on the number #67890 to identify the beneficiary's bank. Intermediary Bank has no duty to determine whether the number identifies a bank. The funds transfer cannot be completed in this case because no bank is identified as the beneficiary's bank. Subsection (a) puts the risk of loss on Originator's bank. Originator's bank is not entitled to payment from Originator. Section 4A-402(c). Originator's bank has improperly executed Originator's payment order and may be liable for damages under section 4A-305. Originator's bank is obliged to compensate Intermediary Bank for loss and expenses resulting from the error by Originator's bank.

  • Subsection (a) also applies if #67890 identifies a bank, but the bank is not Bank A. Intermediary Bank may rely on the number as the proper identification of the beneficiary's bank. If the bank to which Intermediary Bank sends its payment order accepts the order, Intermediary Bank is entitled to payment from Originator's bank, but Originator's bank is not entitled to payment from Originator. The analysis is similar to that in Case #1.

  • 2. Subsection (b)(2) of section 4A-208 addresses cases in which an erroneous identification of a beneficiary's bank or an intermediary bank by name and number is made in a payment order of a sender that is not a bank. Suppose Originator issues a payment order to Originator's bank that instructs that bank to use an intermediary bank identified as Bank A and by an identifying number, #67890. The identifying number refers to Bank B. Originator intended to identify Bank A as intermediary bank. If Originator's bank relied on the number and issued a payment order to Bank B the rights of Originator's bank depend upon whether the proof of notice stated in subsection (b)(2) is made by Originator's bank. If proof is made, Originator's bank's rights are governed by subsection (b)(1) of section 4A-208. Originator's bank is not liable for breach of section 4A-302(a)(1) and is entitled to compensation from Originator for any loss and expenses resulting from Originator's error. If notice is not proved, Originator's bank may not rely on the number in executing Originator's payment order. Since Originator's bank does not get the benefit of subsection (b)(1) in that case, Originator's bank improperly executed Originator's payment order and is in breach of the obligation stated in section 4A-302(a)(1). If notice is not given, Originator's bank can rely on the name if it is not aware of the conflict in name and number. Subsection (b)(3).

  • 3. Although the principal purpose of section 4A-208 is to accommodate automated processing of payment orders, section 4A-208 applies regardless of whether processing is done by automation, by semiautomated means, or manually.