1. This section specifies certain rules concerning the rights of persons who purchase interests in security entitlements from entitlement holders. The rules of this section are provided to take account of cases where the purchaser's rights are derivative from the rights of another person who is and continues to be the entitlement holder.
2. Subsection (a) provides that no adverse claim can be asserted against a purchaser of an interest in a security entitlement if the purchaser gives value, obtains control, and does not have notice of the adverse claim. The primary purpose of this rule is to give adverse claim protection to persons who take security interests in security entitlements and obtain control, but do not themselves become entitlement holders.
The following examples illustrate subsection (a):
Example 1. X steals a certificated bearer bond from Owner. X delivers the certificate to Able & Co. for credit to X's securities account. Later, X borrows from Bank and grants Bank a security interest in the security entitlement. Bank obtains control under section 8-106(d)(2) by virtue of an agreement in which Able agrees to comply with entitlement orders originated by Bank. X absconds.
Example 2. Same facts as in example 1, except that Bank does not obtain a control agreement. Instead, Bank perfects by filing a financing statement.
In both of these examples, when X deposited the bonds X acquired a security entitlement under section 8-501. Under other law, Owner may be able to have a constructive trust imposed on the security entitlement as the traceable product of the bonds that X misappropriated. X granted a security interest in that entitlement to Bank. Bank was a purchaser of an interest in the security entitlement from X. In example 1, although Bank was not a person who acquired a security entitlement from the intermediary, Bank did obtain control. If Bank did not have notice of Owner's claim, section 8-510(a) precludes Owner from asserting an adverse claim against Bank. In example 2, Bank had a perfected security interest, but did not obtain control. Accordingly, section 8-510(a) does not preclude Owner from asserting its adverse claim against Bank.
3. Subsection (b) applies to the indirect holding system a limited version of the "shelter principle". The following example illustrates the relatively limited class of cases for which it may be needed:
Example 3. Thief steals a certificated bearer bond from Owner. Thief delivers the certificate to Able & Co. for credit to Thief's securities account. Able forwards the certificate to a clearing corporation for credit to Able's account. Later Thief instructs Able to sell the positions in the bonds. Able sells to Baker & Co., acting as broker for Buyer. The trade is settled by book-entries in the accounts of Able and Baker at the clearing corporation, and in the accounts of Thief and Buyer at Able and Baker respectively. Owner may be able to reconstruct the trade records to show that settlement occurred in such fashion that the "same bonds" that were carried in Thief's account at Able are traceable into Buyer's account at Baker. Buyer later decides to donate the bonds to Alma Mater University and executes an assignment of its rights as entitlement holder to Alma Mater.
Buyer had a position in the bonds, which Buyer held in the form of a security entitlement against Baker. Buyer then made a gift of the position to Alma Mater. Although Alma Mater is a purchaser, section 1-201(33), it did not give value. Thus, Alma Mater is a person who purchased a security entitlement, or an interest therein, from an entitlement holder (Buyer). Buyer was protected against Owner's adverse claim by the section 8-502 rule. Thus, by virtue of section 8-510(b), Owner is also precluded from asserting an adverse claim against Alma Mater.
4. Subsection (c) specifies a priority rule for cases where an entitlement holder transfers conflicting interests in the same security entitlement to different purchasers. It follows the same principle as the article 9 priority rule for investment property, that is, control trumps noncontrol. Indeed, the most significant category of conflicting "purchasers" may be secured parties. Priority questions for security interests, however, are governed by the rules in article 9. Subsection (c) applies only to cases not covered by the article 9 rules. It is intended primarily for disputes over conflicting claims arising out of repurchase agreement transactions that are not covered by the other rules set out in articles 8 and 9.
The following example illustrates subsection (c):
Example 4. Dealer holds securities through an account at Alpha Bank. Alpha Bank in turn holds through a clearing corporation account. Dealer transfers securities to RP1 in a "hold in custody" repo transaction. Dealer then transfers the same securities to RP2 in another repo transaction. The repo to RP2 is implemented by transferring the securities from Dealer's regular account at Alpha Bank to a special account maintained by Alpha Bank for Dealer and RP2. The agreement among Dealer, RP2, and Alpha Bank provides that Dealer can make substitutions for the securities but RP2 can direct Alpha Bank to sell any securities held in the special account. Dealer becomes insolvent. RP1 claims a prior interest in the securities transferred to RP2.
In this example Dealer remained the entitlement holder but agreed that RP2 could initiate entitlement orders to Dealer's security intermediary, Alpha Bank. If RP2 had become the entitlement holder, the adverse claim rule of section 8-502 would apply. Even if RP2 does not become the entitlement holder, the arrangement among Dealer, Alpha Bank, and RP2 does suffice to give RP2 control. Thus, under section 8-510(c), RP2 has priority over RP1, because RP2 is a purchaser who obtained control, and RP1 is a purchaser who did not obtain control. The same result could be reached under section 8-510(a) which provides that RP1's earlier in time interest cannot be asserted as an adverse claim against RP2. The same result would follow under the article 9 priority rules if the interests of RP1 and RP2 are characterized as "security interests", see section 9-328(1). The main point of the rules of section 8-510(c) is to ensure that there will be clear rules to cover the conflicting claims of RP1 and RP2 without characterizing their interests as article 9 security interests.
The priority rules in article 9 for conflicting security interests also include a default temporal priority rule for cases where multiple secured parties have obtained control but omitted to specify their respective rights by agreement. See section 9-328(2) and comment 5 to section 9-328. Because the purchaser priority rule in section 8-510(c) is intended to track the article 9 priority rules, it too has a temporal priority rule for cases where multiple nonsecured party purchasers have obtained control but omitted to specify their respective rights by agreement. The rule is patterned on section 9-328(2).
5. If a securities intermediary itself is a purchaser, subsection (d) provides that it has priority over the interest of another purchaser who has control. Article 9 contains a similar rule. See section 9-328(3).
Definitional Cross References:
"Adverse claim". Section 8-102(a)(1).
"Control". Section 8-106.
"Entitlement holder". Section 8-102(a)(7).
"Notice of adverse claim". Section 8-105.
"Purchase". Section 1-201(32).
"Purchaser". Sections 1-201(33), 8-116.
"Securities intermediary". Section 8-102(a)(14).
"Security entitlement". Section 8-102(a)(17).
"Value". Sections 1-201(44), 8-116.