1. This section lists the ways in which interests in securities and other financial assets are acquired under article 8. In that sense, it describes the scope of article 8. Subsection (a) describes the two ways that a person may acquire a security or interest therein under this article: (1) By delivery (section 8-301), and (2) by acquiring a security entitlement. Each of these methods is described in detail in the relevant substantive provisions of this article. Part 3, beginning with the definition of "delivery" in section 8-301, describes how interests in securities are acquired in the direct holding system. Part 5, beginning with the rules of section 8-501 on how security entitlements are acquired, describes how interests in securities are acquired in the indirect holding system.
Subsection (b) specifies how a person may acquire an interest under article 8 in a financial asset other than a security. This article deals with financial assets other than securities only insofar as they are held in the indirect holding system. For example, a bankers' acceptance falls within the definition of "financial asset", so if it is held through a securities account the entitlement holder's right to it is a security entitlement governed by part 5. The bankers' acceptance itself, however, is a negotiable instrument governed by article 3, not by article 8. Thus, the provisions of parts 2, 3, and 4 of this article that deal with the rights of direct holders of securities are not applicable. Article 3, not article 8, specifies how one acquires a direct interest in a bankers' acceptance. If a bankers' acceptance is delivered to a clearing corporation to be held for the account of the clearing corporation's participants, the clearing corporation becomes the holder of the bankers' acceptance under the article 3 rules specifying how negotiable instruments are transferred. The rights of the clearing corporation's participants, however, are governed by part 5 of this article.
2. The distinction in usage in article 8 between the term "security" (and its correlatives "security certificate" and "uncertificated security") on the one hand, and "security entitlement" on the other, corresponds to the distinction between the direct and indirect holding systems. For example, with respect to certificated securities that can be held either directly or through intermediaries, obtaining possession of a security certificate and acquiring a security entitlement are both means of holding the underlying security. For many other purposes, there is no need to draw a distinction between the means of holding. For purposes of commercial law analysis, however, the form of holding may make a difference. Where an item of property can be held in different ways, the rules on how one deals with it, including how one transfers it or how one grants a security interest in it, differ depending on the form of holding.
Although a security entitlement is means of holding the underlying security or other financial asset, a person who has a security entitlement does not have any direct claim to a specific asset in the possession of the securities intermediary. Subsection (c) provides explicitly that a person who acquires a security entitlement is a "purchaser" of any security, security entitlement, or other financial asset held by the securities intermediary only in the sense that under section 8-503 a security entitlement is treated as a sui generis form of property interest.
3. Subsection (d) is designed to ensure that parties will retain their expected legal rights and duties under revised article 8. One of the major changes made by the revision is that the rules for the indirect holding system are stated in terms of the "security entitlements" held by investors, rather than speaking of them as holding direct interests in securities. Subsection (d) is designed as a translation rule to eliminate problems of coordination of terminology, and facilitate the continued use of systems for the efficient handling of securities and financial assets through securities intermediaries and clearing corporations. The efficiencies of a securities intermediary or clearing corporation are, in part, dependent on the ability to transfer securities credited to securities accounts in the intermediary or clearing corporation to the account of an issuer, its agent, or other person by book entry in a manner that permits exchanges, redemptions, conversions, and other transactions (which may be governed by pre-existing or new agreements, constitutional documents, or other instruments) to occur and to avoid the need to withdraw from immobilization in an intermediary or clearing corporation physical securities in order to deliver them for such purposes. Existing corporate charters, indentures, and like documents may require the "presentation", "surrender", "delivery", or "transfer" of securities or security certificates for purposes of exchange, redemption, conversion, or other reason. Likewise, documents may use a wide variety of terminology to describe, in the context for example of a tender or exchange offer, the means of putting the offeror or the issuer or its agent in possession of the security. Subsection (d) takes the place of provisions of prior law which could be used to reach the legal conclusion that book-entry transfers are equivalent to physical delivery to the person to whose account the book entry is credited.
Definitional Cross References:
"Delivery". Section 8-301.
"Financial asset". Section 8-102(a)(9).
"Person". Section 1-201(30).
"Purchaser". Sections 1-201(33), 8-116.
"Security". Section 8-102(a)(15).
"Security entitlement". Section 8-102(a)(17).