Methods of sending and presenting; sending directly to payor bank.
(a) A collecting bank shall send items by a reasonably prompt method, taking into consideration relevant instructions, the nature of the item, the number of those items on hand, the cost of collection involved, and the method generally used by it or others to present those items.
(b) A collecting bank may send:
(1) an item directly to the payor bank;
(2) an item to a nonbank payor if authorized by its transferor; and
(3) an item other than documentary drafts to a nonbank payor, if authorized by federal reserve regulation or operating circular, clearinghouse rule, or the like.
(c) Presentment may be made by a presenting bank at a place where the payor bank or other payor has requested that presentment be made.
Source:Laws 1963, c. 544, Art. IV, § 4-204, p. 1817; Laws 1991, LB 161, § 86.
1. Subsection (a) prescribes the general standards applicable to proper sending or forwarding of items. Because of the many types of methods available and the desirability of preserving flexibility any attempt to prescribe limited or precise methods is avoided.
2. Subsection (b)(1) codifies the practice of direct mail, express, messenger, or like presentment to payor banks. The practice is now countrywide and is justified by the need for speed, the general responsibility of banks, federal deposit insurance protection, and other reasons.
3. Full approval of the practice of direct sending is limited to cases in which a bank is a payor. Since nonbank drawees or payors may be of unknown responsibility, substantial risks may be attached to placing in their hands the instruments calling for payments from them. This is obviously so in the case of documentary drafts. However, in some cities practices have long existed under clearinghouse procedures to forward certain types of items to certain nonbank payors. Examples include insurance loss drafts drawn by field agents on home offices. For the purpose of leaving the door open to legitimate practices of this kind, subsection (b)(3) affirmatively approves direct sending of any item other than documentary drafts to any nonbank payor, if authorized by Federal Reserve regulation or operating circular, clearinghouse rule, or the like.
On the other hand subsection (b)(2) approves sending any item directly to a nonbank payor if authorized by a collecting bank's transferor. This permits special instructions or agreements out of the norm and is consistent with the "chain of command" theory of section 4-203. However, if a transferor other than the owner of the item, e.g., a prior collecting bank, authorizes a direct sending to a nonbank payor, such transferor assumes responsibility for the propriety or impropriety of such authorization.
4. Section 3-501(b) provides where presentment may be made. This provision is expressly subject to article 4. Section 4-204(c) specifically approves presentment by a presenting bank at any place requested by the payor bank or other payor. The time when a check is received by a payor bank for presentment is governed by Regulation CC section 229.36(b).